Traditions of tea drinking in Russia
What is the samovar? In the Dictionary of Russian (М., 1981г., т.4) it is spoken: " the Samovar - the metal device for кипячения waters with a furnace inside, filled углями ". In the explanatory Dictionary of alive great russian language of V.I.Dalja (SPB - M., 1912г., т.4) it is said: " the Samovar - water-heating for tea a vessel, б.ч. Copper with trumpet and brazierею inside ".
Deaf melancholy without the reason
And dumas a constant intoxication.
Let's pin luchins-
Let's inflate to themselves a samovar!
For fidelity to an ancient grade,
Perhaps, also will steam out sorrow
Soul taken to tea!
In what attractive force of a samovar why it has remained the steadiest attribute of a domestic cosiness consists, it is possible to understand, only having understood features of Russian tradition - tea drinking.
Well-known, that tea has come to Russia from the East. It does not mean, that before Russia drank only vodka. A hard liquor were in Russia in honour, its inhabitants cooked home-made beer, сбитень. Tea also was the: from leaves, fruits, кореньев grasses, in huge assortment collected, dried up and prepared for various purpose - medical and tonic.
For example, as tea leaves it was used inflorescences of ван-tea, leaves of a cherry, mint, a currant etc.
But, the most important, new, that has come from the East together with is expected as tea leaves is a special ritual action, some kind of a holiday. Introduction and distribution of tea in Russia occured on the prepared ground, and the basic feature, the reason of popularity of tea was in the ceremony, the truth, adapted to psychology of the Russian person.
BITTERNS the SEAGULL - you will FORGET MELANCHOLY.
East tea ceremony in the basis is directed on a deepening of the person, dialogue with the private world. She as though pulls out it from every day vanity. Ways of the tea leaves of tea and his submission on a table is a preparation of ground for discharge from all vain.
Russian ceremony of tea drinking is directed on reception of absolutely opposite effect - associations of a spiritual world of people collected behind a table, disclosings of each separate soul before a society, family, friends, reception of new knowledge. Tea drinking creates conditions for heart-felt conversation.
The SAMOVAR BOILS - TO LEAVE DOES NOT ORDER.
Frank conversation directly with the interlocutor and furthermore with several interlocutors, always it is combined psychologically. It is aggravated some more themes, that behind a table there are, as a rule, some age groups - from children up to great-grandfathers and great-grandmothers. Children the tradition of respect for adults constrains, their parents - reverence of the parents. The careless remark, collision of two opinions sometimes destroys доверительность conversations, and speaking becomes silent and leaves " in itself ". " The silent interlocutor " was necessary for creation of spirit of democratic character certain, looking on which, and, addressing to which, it would be possible to state the most secret, not being afraid to be not understood. This role is allocated in Russian tea drinking to a samovar.
TEA TO DRINK - NOT FIRE WOOD TO CUT.
Got dark. On a table, shining,
The evening samovar hissed,
The Chinese teapot heating up,
Under it curled easy pairs …
Such subject on a table was necessary for Russian ceremony of tea drinking. And it was invented on a boundary of XVIII century by Russian masters. The samovar has come in each house. The samovar became a symbol of goods and a domestic cosiness. Children received knowledge, absorbed traditions, studied to speak and listen at a samovar. This subject has come in classics of the Russian literature and art as indispensable attribute of family rest. He became object of art interest, and a lot of masters of arts and crafts took part in creation of its decorative furniture.
What is the samovar? In the Dictionary of Russian (М., 1981г., т.4) it is spoken: " the Samovar - the metal device for кипячения waters with a furnace inside, filled углями ". In the explanatory Dictionary of alive great russian language of V.I.Dalja (SPB - M., 1912г., т.4) it is told: " the Samovar - water-heating for tea a vessel, Copper with a pipe and jarovneyinside ".
Its device is simple, as all ingenious. He consists of a seamless thin-walled vessel. Itis pierced vertically with a pipe beginning from topki from below and finishing by a ring. Last serves as for installation on it of a teapot for tea leaves, and for realization of a current of air when the ring is closed by a cover.
From other devices for кипячения the waters, known long before occurrence of a samovar and which people use now, the samovar differs first of all that he has united in itself all practical experience of mankind on economy of energy.
All heat rising on a pipe, is given water environmental it. The big surface of a pipe quickly leads up water to boiling and maintains temperature. The natural current of warm air upwards creates ideal draft in топке. Topka it is attached from below to a vessel (tulovu) a samovar on necessary distance from a surface of a table on which the samovar is put. The distance it is adjusted by legs of a samovar which give to it stability and fire safety.
The pipe, being a constructive core, forms a basis for a cover of a vessel put on on it, a ring, a cover of the pipe. Through a pipe fuel is pawned and the samovar is kindled. As fuel serve pine shishki, vetki, chips, Their charge is minimal.
For injection of water the cover of a vessel is removed. For filling a glass there is a convenient crane with притертыми surfaces. The crane is located on some distance from a bottom of a samovar that allows to not get suspensions in cups.
Such elements as the crane (Vetka), the handle for carry of a samovar, a leg on which it costs, are made with the help of moulding and are soldered to a vessel. These elements have the various form and decorative ornaments. Their remoteness from a source of heating keeps the soldering centuries. Samovars were used both for preparation of tea, and for preparation of soup, porridge, sbitnya. In such samovars vessels were divided on two or three compartments and a dish prepared simultaneously.
Use a samovar the child can even - water is poured, fuel is pawned and the set fire chip falls to a pipe. In crude weather or at wet fuel the samovar needs to be inflated. It do or through apertures in walls топки, or a "country" way - with the help of a boot put on on a pipe which carries out function of fur in a forge forge. At boiling water on a ring the brewing teapot, ceramic or porcelain is established, depending on taste, a habit or a solvency making tea. Draft is slowed down, and the samovar slowly leads up water to boiling, qualitatively making tea. Tea from a samovar usually drink in snack, that is sugar moves separately.
TEA you DRINK - TILL HUNDRED YEARS you will LIVE.
The samovar costs always in the centre of a table. He kind - on the image, on rotundity of forms. He it is good-natured smells slightly of a smoke and gurgles boiling water. He reflects in the sides of people environmental it and a nature, giving some irreality to an event.
FOR it IS EXPECTED - we DO not MISS.
Emperor of white cups,
Your deep grumble is heavy
That who angrily gives to the world.
How our great-grandfathers and great-grandmothers drank tea?
It is known, that tea for the first time was delivered to Europe by Dutchs in 1610, to England he has got in 1644, and in Russia was used from middle of XVIII century, originally as a medicine.
Breakfast of the Russian landowner XIX in. Is as though connection accepted in France that time of the first and second breakfasts. " Having got drunk, to tea, start breakfast: will submit beaten meat with sour cream, skovorodku mushrooms or porridge, will warm up yesterday's hot, to children will make semolina soup - to everyone will find something to taste " (Goncharov I.A. "Frigate" Pallada ").
To tea the biscuit, crackers "English", rolls, kalaches and to them jam strawberry, strawberry or crimson submitted sugar - lump sugar (sand bought only for kitchen - from it tea became muddy). Sometimes took бриоши (the French rich crust roll in the form of a croissant) and Ревельский bread (a fine rye bread with caraway seeds). On a table put a silver samovar, silver a teapot, sitechko, in a sugar bowl - tweezers, and, besides a teapot - " crystal in a silver frame and at it special forms a spoon, for overlaying to tea " (E.Avdeeva " the Full economic book ").
WITH TEA WILL NOT BE DRUNK.
About what tea drank in Russia this time, in detail tells I.A.Goncharov: " we name good gentle, fragrant flower teas. Not aroma and a bouquet of this tea is accessible to any nose and language: he is too thin. These teas refer to … pекое (Pekoe flower). Englishmen good we expect, yes simply we expect (at them he one), name a special grade rough black or his mix with green, a mix very narcotic. From tea demand the same, that from Indian сой and pepper, that is something like poison " ("Frigate" Pallada "). Under flower we expect not tea from colors (Potters the Chinese manner to put in black tea jasmine, and in yellow pink petals names " consequence of a saturation"), namely the grade of tea prepared from a top of a of a kidney of a plant - with especially thin and refined aroma, certainly, is understood.
Tea drinking in Russian differed not only a grade and quality of used tea. Certainly, odd fellows and originals in Russia drank tea with a carnation on Japanese manners, and on China with colors, and green tea as the present Americans drink. However, to drink Russian tea meant to drink tea made (Englishmen as notices Potters, " cook it as usual as cabbage ") and with sugar - for the foreigner Russian tea " any luscious drink ".
Duma-father, the author of the culinary dictionary, wrote: " the Best tea drink in Saint Petersburg and as a whole on all Russia ", and explained it to that tea extremely suffers from long sea transportations and from all European countries only Russia can import tea overland directly from China. At this time China where tea was known from prehistoric times, the basic supplier of tea, to India and to Ceylon tea was delivered only in 1865. " Customs are strange in Russia so foreigners find their extraordinary shocking when for the first time meet ", - wrote in dictionary Duma. So, for example, he finds surprising, that " men drink tea from glasses whereas women use cups of the Chinese porcelain ".
WHERE THERE IS A TEA - THERE UNDER THE FUR-TREE PARADISE